Auxiliary Verbs – Helping Verbs (=hjälpverb)

Stand alone Verbs

Be Do Have
am
is
are
was
were
being
been
does
do
did
has
have
had
having

Here are some examples of have used as a stand alone verb:

have an idea.  (possession)
My father has five brothers and three sisters.
The doctor had a lot of experience.
He has two Volvos and a Range Rover.  (ownership)

Person 1st / 2nd sing 3rd sing Plural
Tense I / you he, she, etc we / you / they
Present have has have
Preteritum (past simple) had
Present perfect have had has had have had
Past perfect had had

 

Verb “work” 1st sing 2nd sing 3rd sing Plural
Present 
perfect
I have worked you have worked he / she… has worked we / you / they have worked
Past 
perfect
I had worked You had worked He/ she … had worked we / you / they had worked
Present perfect progressive I have been working You have been working He / she… have been working we / you / they have been working
Past perfect progressive I had been working You had been working he / she … had been working We had been working

HOW DO WE KNOW IF A VERB IS AUXILIARY OR NOT?

To distinguish a stand alone verb from an auxiliary verb, you can carry out the following test:

If the verb

  1. allows subject-auxiliary inversion (Example: Sam (subject) has (auxiliary) read the newspaper).
  2. and can take not in the negative form,

then it is an auxiliary verb.

Examples:

  • You are going to travel to London.
    Are you going to travel to London?
    You are not going to travel to London.
    = are is an an auxiliary verb

There is a difference between Have as an auxiliary verb and Have as stand alone verb.

Be, do, and have are both stand-alone verbs and auxiliary verbs. When these verbs are auxiliary, you will find them teamed with other verbs to complete the verb phrase, such as:

Example: Mark doesn’t have an English class on Thursday. (Here does is the auxiliary verb).

On the other hand, just like auxiliary do and in contrast to main verb have, auxiliary have is ruled out in do support contexts. This means that: when you have both verbs do and have in the same sentence the rules for have are ruled out. Instead the following grammar rules apply: 

Person 1st / 2nd sing 3rd sing Plural
Tense I / you he, she, etc we / you / they
Present do not have / don’t have does not have/ doesn’t have don’t have
Preteritum (past simple)  did not have / didn’t have
Present perfect haven’t had hasn’t  had haven’t had
Past perfect hadn’t had

To learn more about auxiliary verbs, please watch the following video.


 

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